Timeline of Painting, Sculpture, and Architecture

This outline of key artists is based on Gardner’s Art Through the Ages and there is no need, or is it desirable, to study each artist listed. Choose only a few your family likes.

I. Ancient Times: Cave paintings; sculpture, painting, & architecture of the Near East, Israel, Egypt, Greece, & Rome
II. Early Christian, Byzantine, & Islamic Art; Art of India, China, Japan, Africa, the South Pacific, & the Americas

III. The Middle Ages, 400-1400 AD: Early Medieval Art, Romanesque Art, Gothic Art

IV. The Renaissance, 1300-1600

 A. 14th Century, Proto-Renaissance: Duccio, Cimabue, Giotto, Simone Martini, the Lorenzetti brothers (Italy); Sluter, the Limbourg Brothers (Flanders); Pucelle (Parisian illuminator)

B. 15th Century: Donatello, Brunelleschi, Michelozzo, Massaccio, Fra Angelico, Fra Filippo Lippi, Alberti, Giuliano, Desiderio, Verrocchio, Ghirlandaio, Botticelli, Mantegna, Antonello (Italy); Jan Van Eyck, Van Der Weyden, Van Der Goes (Flanders)

C. 16th Century, Protestant Reformation begins in Germany in 1517.

  • Venetian Art: Sansovino, Palladio, Bellini, Titian, Tintoretto, Veronese
  • High Renaissance: Leonardo da Vinci, Bramante, Raphael, Michelangelo, Correggio (Italy); Grunewald, Durer, Hans Holbein (Germany); Bruegel (Flanders); Lescot (France); Machuca, Herrera (Spain)
  • Mannerism, 1520-1600: Pontormo, Parmigianino, Bronzino, Giulio (Italy); Clouet, Pilon (France); El Greco (Spain)

V. Baroque Art, 1600-1750: Bernini, Borromini, Guarini, Caravaggio (Italy); Velazquez (Spain); Rubens (Flanders/Spanish Netherlands); Frans Hals, Rembrandt, Vermeer, Ruisdael (Holland); Georges de la Tour, Le Nain, Callot, Poussin, Claude Lorraine, Mansart, Perrault, Le Vau, Le Brun, Hardouin-Mansart (France); Christopher Wren (England)

VI. Rococo, Early 18th Century: Juvara, Tiepolo (Italy); Vanbrugh, Kent, Hogarth (England); Boffrand, Cuvillies, Watteau, Boucher, Fragonard, de la Tour, Chardin (France)

VII. Romanticism & Neoclassicism, 1750-1850: Walpole, Stuart, Adam, Gainsborough, Reynolds, William Blake, Barry & Pugin, John Nash, Turner, Constable (England); Piranesi (Italy); Soufflot, Houdon, Elizabeth-Louise Vigee-Lebrun, Greuze, Jacques Louis David, Vignon, Barye, Anne Louis Girodet-Trioson, Gericault, Delacroix, Ingres (France); Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin West, Horatio Greenough, Thomas Cole, Frederick Church, Jasper Francis Cropsey, George Caleb Bingham (USA); Goya (Spain)

VIII. Realism, 1850-1900

A. Transition: Corot, Millet, Daumier (France) 

B. Realism Established: Courbet, Manet, Tissot, Rosa Bonheur, Bastien-Lepage, Doré, Rodin, Labrouste, Eiffel (France); Leibl (Germany); Ilya Repin (Russia); Paxton (England); Eakins, Sargent, Homer, Richardson, Sullivan, Remington (USA)

C. Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood: Millais, Burne-Jones, John Ruskin/critic, William Morris (England)

D. Impressionism: Monet, Sisley, Pissarro, Renoir, Degas (France); Mary Cassatt, Whistler, William Merritt Chase (USA)

E. Post-Impressionists: Seurat, Cezanne, Van Gogh, Gauguin, Toulouse-Lautrec (France); Gari Melchers (USA)

IX. 20th Century Before WWII

A. Symbolism: Klimt (Austria); Munch (Norway); Rousseau (France); Ryder (USA)

B. Arts & Crafts Movement, Art Nouveau, Art Deco (Decorative Arts & Graphics): William Morris (England); Horta (Belgium); Gaudi (Spain)

C. Fauves: Matisse, Derain, Rouault (France)

D. German Expressionism, “The Bridge” (unites nature & emotion): Kokoschka, Nolde, Beckmann, Grosz, Kathe Kollwitz, Barlach

E. German Expressionism, “The Blue Rider” (concerned with emotions, eliminates representational elements): Kandinsky (Russia)

F. Cubism: Picasso [early work is realistic & highly skilled] (Spain); Braque, Leger, Duchamp (France); Lepchitz (Poland); Archipenko (Russia); Boccioni

G. Abstractions: Mondrian (Holland); Georgia O’Keeffe (USA); Malevich (Russia); Brancusi (Romania); Henry Moore (England)

H. Constructivism: Pevsner, Gabo, Vantongerloo, Tatlin (Russia); Calder [mobiles] (USA)

I. Dada (nonart after WWI, felt European culture had lost meaning): Duchamp (French); Schwitters (Germany); Man Ray (USA)

J. Surrealism (concerned with the subconscious): De Chirico (Italy); Ernst (USA); Miro, Dali (Spain); Chagall (Russia); Klee (Switzerland)

K. Social Realism & Commentary: Norman Rockwell, Ben Shahn, Grant Wood, Edward Hopper (USA); Siqueiros, Orozco, Rivera (Mexico)

L. International Style of Architecture: Wright, Mies Van Der Rohe, Pei (USA); Le Corbusier (Switzerland); Rietveldt (Holland); Gropius (Germany)

X. 20th Century after WWII

A. Expressionism, Figural & Abstract: Bacon (England); Hoffman, Pollock, Kline, De Kooning, Rothko (USA)

B. Realism: Andrew Wyeth, Norman Rockwell (USA); Iltners (Russia). Photo Realism: Richard Estes (USA)

C. Abstract Formalism: Stuart Davis, Ellsworth Kelly, Bridget Riley, David Smith, Louise Nevelson, Donald Judd, Robert Smithson (USA)

D. Pop Art: Jasper Johns, Roy Lichtenstein, Andy Warhol, Christo (USA)

Compiled by Beth S. 2004




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